The CDC reports that about 2.8 million U.S. residents sustain a TBI annually. TBIs are the main cause of disability and death in ages 1 to 44. There are several types of TBIs that a person in Indiana or another state may experience.
Overview of TBIs
Traumatic brain injuries from a hard blow or jolt to the head interrupt the normal brain processes. A closed TBI doesn't penetrate the skull, commonly occurring from a fall or an auto accident. The force of the accident moves the brain inside of the skull and may damage blood vessels and brain tissues.
An open TBI penetrates the skull, such as from a bullet or flying debris injuring one area. The same person may experience both open and closed TBIs from explosions, natural disasters, and other extreme events.
While TBIs can happen to anyone of any age or background, some groups have a greater risk of them than others. People aged 65 and older have the most risk of death and hospitalization from TBIs, and males are at greater risk than females.
Types of TBIs
A concussion is commonly a mild brain injury that may or may not cause a brief loss of consciousness. Some symptoms include headache, fatigue, ear ringing, confusion, dizziness, blurred vision, nausea or vomiting, noise sensitivity, and balance issues. Many concussions are only temporary and heal with treatment in several weeks without leaving long-term effects.
A diffuse axonal injury is a more severe TBI that damages the brain's axons or connecting fibers. A diffuse axonal injury may cause a longer loss of consciousness and loss of control of the bowels and bladder along with mild TBI symptoms.
Several types of hematoma, or bleeding, can occur from a damaged blood vessel in or near the brain. A contusion is a brain bruise or swelling caused by blood vessels bleeding on brain tissue at the injury site.
Individuals who have received a brain injury should seek medical treatment immediately. Sometimes, adrenaline prevents symptoms for several days, and they need proof of the injury if they later want to recover damages from at-fault parties.